|False Sunflower (note the disc flowers)|
|Wild Hops, yes the same hops used in brewing beer!|
The gall shown in the last photo was made by an insect called a Goldenrod Gall Fly. It spends its entire life around (or inside of) goldenrod plants. The female goldenrod gall fly will make a small incision into the stem of the plant and lay her eggs inside. When the larvae hatch from the eggs they begin to eat the plant tissues. Their saliva contains a chemical that mimics goldenrod growth hormones and the gall forms as a result.